The term ASA stands for American Sociological Association. This format of referencing was developed to be yardstick for writers who want to publish papers in sociology-related spheres. ASA paper citation system is a style of referencing developed by body itself. Its main concern is on research papers done by higher institutions, although publications for ASA journals are also referenced this way. It should also be taken into account that ASA serves as the major regulatory body for sociologists who are well involved in academic publications.
ASA format was firstly applied in 1996. It shares some general similarities with APA style (American Psychological Association), one of which is the feature of enclosing its partial references in a pair of brackets, e.g., instead of Smoley, 2010 it is written as (Smoley, 2010). It differs from other citation styles based on its criteria in the creation of a separate segment for references. For ASA referencing style, any publications mentioned is written using “References” as heading, which in MLA style, for instance, is called “Works Cited”. One other notable feature that is seen is the style’s usage of the author-publication date format.
There are a few key discrepancies to be aware of when using this style:
- If name of person who stated opinion was indicated earlier in the sentence, to avoid repetition just year a statement was made is enclosed in brackets, g., While many believe UFOs are real, Brendon thinks it’s only a well-covered conspiracy tactic. (1967).
- For this format, the topic is outlined on the foremost page, separate from both abstract and main body of the text.
- Abstracts are usually required to be short, not more than 200 words. The name of the writer shouldn’t be written.
- Text manuscript is characterized by double spacing with a font size of 12. This rule also applies to footnotes used in the text.
- Margins in a document using this format must be at least 1.4 inches away from all sides.
Title page usually indicates topic of research document, together with its author(s). Names are outlined vertically, in the middle of page – name of author, then that of institution where author studies or works. Some instructors also request inclusion of word count on this page. At the bottom, a footnote must be written by author(s), indicating if there was any single or joint funding of this paper. This includes grants and aids as well. Footnote should also mention who can be contacted for any correspondence on the paper; their school address and postal code inclusive. A sample can be viewed below.
We will now look at ASA citation with details. The format has different specifications for different forms of documents. A few of these features had been mentioned before now. There are other few discrepancies to note when referencing with ASA style:
- Author’s surname is always inverted, the first name used. If there are multiple writers, just surname of the 1st contributor is inverted. Others have their full names written. Example: Joanna M. and Jerry Redmann. 2016. Through the lens of culture: The Haka. Auckland, New Zealand. The NZ Social Watchpost.
- Publication’s prime topics in all ASA citations are written in Italics. For translated versions, the details of the involved translator are noted after those of publishing press. Example: Joanna M. and Jerry Redmann. 2016. Through the lens of culture: The Haka. Auckland, New Zealand. NZ Social Watchpost. Translated by T. Snicks. New Jersey: Appledale Printing Press.
- For online data hubs, date of retrieval must also be indicated. Site with the appropriate link should be written. Example: Danowski. 2008. The strengths of minority tribes in large countries. Southampton: State University Press. Retrieved on July 24th 2008 (https: //ehub.co.sh/sociology/minority_tribes_strengths.html).
- When citing articles, newspaper posts or magazines using ASA style, issue number plus journal page, where write-up is featured must be indicated. But in this instance, publication titles are not italicized; the name of host journal/ newspaper is. The edition/issue is also noted. Example: Sandra N. 2017. “The myth of the afterlife: An Egyptian perspective.” Egyptian Mythology Journal, March 2014, pp 56-58. For some magazines, the author’s family name might not be inverted.